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Science

PHILOSOPHY/RATIONALE

The integrated science module was created for students to appreciate scientific inquiry in real life, where boundaries to biology, chemistry and physics are less distinct. The holistic side of scientific inquiry comes to life in this module, where the focus does not lie in any specific curriculum content.

One key section of the module is forensic science which provides a unique opportunity for students to study science that is relevant to real life. It is an applied science that is multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary, explores connections to the past, and projections for the future. It fosters cooperative learning with students working in investigative teams. By its very nature, forensic science is inquiry-based and activity-driven, requiring keen and detailed observation as well as strong communication and organisation skills.


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Key Understandings

Scientific inquiry is a systematic approach to develop a better understanding of the real world and to solve practical problems

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, student will be able to

  • Design and conduct a scientific investigation to solve a scientific problem
  • Appreciate the inquiry nature of science
  • Apply the creative-thinking process as a problem-solving tool

Programmes

YEAR 1 & 2
Science Investigative Project
Student self-initiated project
  • Formulating research question(s)
  • Constructing a testable hypothesis
  • Designing and proposing research method(s)
  • Identifying variables
  • Choosing appropriate materials and apparatus
  • Collecting data
  • Organising and presenting data (in graphical/diagrammatic form)
  • Analysing and interpreting data/graph
  • Discussing and drawing conclusions from the data/graph
  • Identifying limitation(s) to the investigation

Hands-on Problem Solving
  • Involves spontaneous problem solving to physically create a tangible solution and in the process enhance competency in creative and critical thinking skills, improve cooperative learning abilities and cultivate responsible team membership

Crime Scene Investigation
  • Fingerprinting
  • Chromatography
  • Trace metal identification
  • Blood splatter analysis
  • Genetic fingerprinting and profiling
  • Anatomy and human physiology
  • Handwriting analysis
  • Crime scene reconstruction
PHILOSOPHY/RATIONALE

The curriculum is designed to cultivate in our students an appreciation of the place of humanity in nature by studying the diversity and complexity of life and the interrelations among organisms through the process of scientific inquiry.

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Key Understandings

The students will understand that:

  • Evolution is the study of patterns and products of changes in living systems – living systems change across time.
  • Living systems are complex and highly organised, and they require matter and energy to maintain this organisation.
  • Ecology is the interaction of living systems with their environment, and they interdepend with other systems.
  • Homeostasis is the means by which living systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment through their regulatory mechanisms and behaviour.
  • Living systems grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on a genetic plan that is influenced by the environment.

Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, students will be able to

  • Understand that patterns and relationships underlie the systems of the natural and physical world
  • Use the method of scientific inquiry which involves asking testable questions, making critical observations, conducting controlled experiments, and forming analyses
  • Apply critical and creative thinking to solve problems and evaluate ethical issues, and communicate the ideas effectively
  • Appreciate that the concepts of science are continually modified and expanded based upon new information and is the result of cooperative and cumulative activities of different individuals and group
  • Understand that science, technology, and engineering impact the course of history, society, culture, politics, economics, the environment, and individual lives
  • Demonstrate the attitudes relevant for scientific inquiry such as objectivity, integrity, curiosity, initiative, inventiveness, creativity, concern for accuracy and precision

Programmes

YEAR 1 & 2
Evolution
  • Diversity
  • Classification

Energy, Matter and Organisation
  • Heterotrophic nutrition

Ecology
  • Interaction and interdependance in living system 
  • Ecological system 

Homeostasis
  • Equilibrium in living systems 
  • Circulatory system 
  • Pathogen & diseases

YEAR 3 & 4
Evolution
  • Concepts of Evolutionary change 
  • Mechanisms of evolution, natural selection 

Energy, Matter & Organisation
  • Biomolecules & enzymes 
  • Autrophic nutrition 
  • Respiration 

Ecology
  • Biomes 
  • Ecological techniques 
  • Man's impact on the ecosystems 
  • Sustainability and Conservation 

Homeostasis
  • Cellular structure & regulation 
  • Molecular movement across membrane 

Continuity
  • Animal and human reproduction 
  • DNA and genomics 
  • Genetic basis for variation and development 
  • Application of molecular and cell biology 
  • Genetically modified organisms

Biology

PHILOSOPHY/RATIONALE

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Biology is the understanding of the diversity and complexity of life and the interrelations among organisms through the process of scientific inquiry. In this way, we can appreciate the place of humanity in nature and be good stewards of the earth.

Key Understandings
The students will understand that

  • Evolution is the study of patterns and products of changes in living systems – living systems change across time
  • Living systems are complex and highly organised, and they require matter and energy to maintain this organisation
  • Ecology is the interaction of living systems with their environment, and they interdepend with other systems
  • Homeostasis is the means by which living systems maintain a relatively stable internal environment through their regulatory mechanisms and behaviour
  • Living systems grow, develop, and differentiate during their lifetimes based on a genetic plan that is influenced by the environment
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, students will be able to

  • Understand that patterns and relationships underlie the systems of the natural and physical world
  • Use the method of scientific inquiry which involves asking testable questions, making critical observations, conducting controlled experiments, and forming analyses
  • Apply critical and creative thinking to solve problems and evaluate ethical issues, and communicate the ideas effectively
  • Appreciate that the concepts of science are continually modified and expanded based upon new information and is the result of cooperative and cumulative activities of different individuals and group
  • Understand that science, technology, and engineering impact the course of history, society, culture, politics, economics, the environment, and individual lives
  • Demonstrate the attitudes relevant for scientific inquiry such as objectivity, integrity, curiosity, initiative, inventiveness, creativity, concern for accuracy and precision  
 Programmes

YEAR 1 & 2


  • The Scientific Endeavour

Diversity
  • Understanding Diversity of Living Things

Model
  • Model of Cells – the Basic Units of life

System
  • Transport System in Living Things
  • Human Digestive System
  • Human Sexual Reproductive System

Interactions
  • Interactions within Ecosystems


YEAR 3 & 4  

Evolution  
  • Natural Selection

Energy, Matter & Organisation
  • Cell Structure & Organisation
  • Movement of Substances
  • Biological Molecules
  • Nutrition in Plants
  • Transport in Flowering Plants
  • Respiration in Humans

Homeostasis
 
  • Homeostasis
  • Excretion in Humans
  • Coordination and Response in Humans

Continuity  
  • Reproduction
  • Inheritance
  • Cell Division
  • Molecular Genetics
  • DNA Technology
 


Chemistry

PHILOSOPHY/RATIONALE

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Chemistry is the study of matter and its changes. Through learning chemistry, students discover and comprehend the natural world and appreciate the profound influence of chemistry in everyday living. Methods of inquiry will characterise the study of chemistry in the Raffles Programme. Students will be given opportunities to develop their competencies in scientific inquiry, hence, to enhance creativity and to hone critical thinking skills. The chemistry curriculum is designed to place emphasis on the understanding and application of scientific concepts and principles in recognition of the need for students to develop skills that will be of long-term value in an increasingly technological world.

Key Understandings
The students will understand that

  • Changes in matter involve the rearrangement and/or reorganisation of atoms and/or transfer of electrons
  • The arrangement and structure of particles and forces between them determine the chemical and physical properties of materials
  • Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only transformed from one form to another
  • Interactions among particles can lead to measurable changes at the macroscopic level
  • Systematic patterns and relationships exist in many levels of organisation in the physical world
  • Social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations affect the study and practice of science
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, the students will be able to

  • Develop an interest and a strong foundation in chemistry and is prepared for studies at a higher level, in applied sciences or in science-related courses
  • Develop the abilities, skills, ethics and attitudes relevant to the study and practices of science
  • Become confident citizens in a technological world, able to take or develop an informed interest in matters of scientific importance
  • Have an interest in and care for the local and global environment
Programmes 

YEAR 1 & 2

  • The Scientific Endeavour

Diversity
  • Exploring Diversity of Matter by its Chemical Composition
  • Exploring Diversity of Matter Using Separation Techniques

Model
  • Model of Matter – The Particulate Nature of Matter
  • Model of Matter – Atoms and Molecules

Interactions
  • Chemical Changes

YEAR 3 & 4

Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Acids, Bases & Salts
  • Precipitation
  • Redox
  • Organic Reactions

Atom
  • Quantum Atomic Model
  • Electronic Configuration

Bonding
  • Chemical Bonding
  • Structure of Matter

The Periodic Table
  • Group Trends

Nomenclature
  • Naming simple ionic and covalent compounds
  • Organic compounds and functional groups

Experimental Chemistry
  • Volumetric Analysis
  • Qualitative Analysis
  • Salts Preparation

Nature of Chemical Reactions
  • Mole Concept & Stoichiometry
  • Energy from Chemicals
  • Speed of Reaction
  • Chemical Equilibrium


physics

PHILOSOPHY/RATIONALE

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The curriculum is designed to provide the breadth of study in theoretical and experimental physics necessary for learners to make informed decisions in the pursuit of physics-dependent disciplines. It also allows for the depth of study that leads to an understanding of the physical world, using fundamental physics concepts and principles. In this way, students become confident and contributing citizens in a technological world, guided by a keen sense of curiosity, and refined by critical and creative thinking.

Key Understandings
Students will understand that

  • Models simplify processes or behaviours in the real world
  • Changes can be steady, cyclical, random or chaotic
  • Systems have elements that interact with each other to perform a function
  • Scale enables data of extreme magnitudes to be managed with ease
  • Observations of the universe are expressed in measurable physical quantities
  • Methods of scientific enquiry involve asking questions which can be explored, making critical observations, conducting controlled experiments, generating hypotheses, and drawing inferences that often lead to further questions
  • Concepts and principles in Physics are continually modified and expanded in the light of new
  • Science, technology and engineering impact the course of history, politics, economics, society, culture, the environment and individual lives
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, students will be able to

  • Develop their interest in Physics and build the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for further studies in related fields
  • Be scientifically literate citizens who are well-prepared for the challenges of the 21st century
  • Understand the skills, ethics and attitudes relevant to the Practices of Science, including the following:
      • Understanding the nature of scientific knowledge
      • Demonstrating science inquiry skills
      • Relating science and society
  • Understand that a small number of basic principles and core ideas can be applied to explain, analyse and solve problems in a variety of systems in the physical world
 Programmes

YEAR 1 & 2

  • The Scientific Endeavour

Diversity
  • Exploring Diversity of Matter by their Physical Properties

Model
  • Ray Model of Light

Systems
  • Electrical Systems

Interactions
  • Interactions through the Application of Forces
  • Energy and Work Done
  • Transfer of Sound Energy Through Vibrations
  • Effects of Head & its Transmission


YEAR 3 & 4

Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement

Newtonian Mechanics
  • Kinematics
  • DynamicsMass, Weight and Density
  • Turning Effect of Forces
  • Pressure
  • Energy, Work and Power

Thermal Physics
  • Kinetic Model of Matter
  • Thermal Properties of Matter

Waves
  • General Wave Properties
  • Light
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electricity and Magnetism
  • Static Electricity
  • Current of Electricity
  • D.C. Circuits
  • Practical Electricity
  • Magnetism
  • Electromagnetism
  • Electromagnetic Induction