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Inquiry and advocacy nurture inquirers who contribute knowledge and act for the betterment of their community. Students examine knowledge and thinking to understand themselves, the world and how they ought to live. Through challenging their cognitive and creative abilities, students integrate and apply their understanding in their areas of interest for the betterment of self and others.

Inquiry and advocacy aims to develop students to:
  • Reason logically and ethically about issues
  • Understand what it means to be part of a community
  • Use her knowledge for the betterment of self and others

Key Understandings
Students will understand that

  • All stakeholders in society are inter-connected through the political, economic and social fabric of society
  • The way stakeholders interact impacts the development of society and themselves
  • The dynamic interplay of social, economic, political, technological and environmental factors shape and affect the development of society
  • The state of a society depends on good governance as well as individual and collective social responsibility
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the course, the students should be able to 

  • Analyse and evaluate arguments
  • Examine societal issues critically
  • Recognise values
  • Gather, interpret and evaluate information from different sources to make well-reasoned and substantiated conclusions on societal issues
  • Demonstrate sound reasoning and responsible decision-making that is mindful of the consequences of one’s actions on those around them
  • Demonstrate perspective-taking when encountering differing views
  • Demonstrate reflective thinking when reviewing their understanding of societal issues and examining personal assumptions and beliefs about others

  • Introduction to Community of Inquiry
  • Questioning Frameworks e.g. Question Quadrant, Socratic Questioning
  • Richard Paul’s Elements of Reasoning
  • Ethical Reasoning (Understanding Ethical Questions and Moral Judgements)
  • Logic & Argumentation –What is an Argument?


  • Logic & Argumentation – Argument Forms and Introduction to Argument Evaluation
  • Ethical Reasoning (Ethical Principles)


  • Logic & Argumentation – Argument Evaluation
  • Governance and Diversity
  • Governance and Justice
  • Governance and Liberty
  • Governance and Ethics 


  • The Global Economy
  • Globalisation and Singapore
  • Singapore in the International System

            Year 3 students learning about the diversity in our society through Learning Journeys.




The curriculum is designed for our students to understand the spatial location, distribution and relationship of human and physical phenomena. The study of these geographical phenomena, using geographical investigation and interpretation skills, seeks to understand the spatial patterns and relationships of the four geographical spheres – atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere, at different scales. It endeavours to provide accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the Earth's surface.

Key Understandings
Students will understand, through spatial analysis of geographical phenomenon, that

  • The Earth, as a system, is made up of sub-systems
  • Each system or sub-system of the geographical spheres has elements that interact with one another to bring about CHANGE(s) in the system(s)
  • The complex interaction of the elements of the various geographical spheres can take place at various SCALEs, ranging from micro- to macro- scale and is best understood through MODELS, simulations of processes or behaviors in the real world
Learning Outcomes
Geography, as taught in the Raffles Programme, aims to develop geographically informed, responsible and active citizens of an increasingly interdependent global community. By the end of the course the student should be able to

  • Use geographic skills and techniques to observe, acquire, organise, analyze geographic information and present information
  • Develop critical understanding of the characteristics and distribution of physical and human phenomena; and the processes affecting the physical and human environments
  • Develop a global sense of place based on spatial awareness and understanding of spatial variations in geographic phenomenon on the Earth's surface
  • Develop awareness of contrasting opportunities and constraints which people face in local, regional and global environments
  • Provide an understanding of the dynamic and changing outcomes resulting from physical-human relationships
  • Develop an appreciation of the dynamic nature of geography over time and space
  • Apply spatial and ecological perspectives to evaluate, make decisions about and report on issues, processes, and events in the challenging future
  • Develop a social conscience and a sense of responsibility with respect to community-spiritedness and become active citizens of a globally interdependent community
  • Introduction to Geography and Geographical Systems
  • Methods of Geographical Inquiry I: Mapwork, Atlas Skills & Basic Locational Geography
  • Geomorphology I: Hydrological Studies
  • Elements of Atmospheric Science I
  • Economic Geography: Agriculture
  • Global Issue I: Access to Freshwater and Food

  • Methods of Geographical Inquiry II: Photo Interpretation
  • Elements of Atmospheric Science II
  • Geologic Processes and Landforms
  • Biomes (Natural Vegetation)
  • Population Dynamics
  • Global Issue II: Threatened Habitats

  • Methods of Geographical Inquiry III: Basic Interpretation of Topographical Map
  • Hazards and Management
  • Geomorphology II: Weathering and Coastal Studies
  • Settlement Studies I: Spatial Dynamics of Urban Landscape
  • Settlement Studies II: Human Migration
  • Global Issue III: Human Rights

  • Economic Geography II : Resources, Industry, Tourism and Development
  • Global Issue IV: Environmental Degradation and Management



RGS 020216 RPP 0107.jpg
The curriculum is designed to allow students to develop knowledge, skills and values that would enable them to better understand, appreciate and learn from the richness of the human experience of the past. The study of these ideas, attitudes, and actions of peoples in the past will sharpen a student's sense of values, offering moral lessons in shaping the student as a person, thinker, leader and pioneer. It would also help cultivate a more tolerant and compassionate spirit toward peoples whose culture and way of life may be different from the student's own.

Key Understandings
Students will understand that

  • The understanding of History may change based on the dynamic interaction between time, evidence and narratives.
  • The merits of a place may generate competition for its control.
  • A government that uses force and discrimination as means to enforce its rule can cause resentment and a desire for self-determination.
  • The politicization of issues such as race and religion can lead to deep divisons in society.
  • Tensions in society may lead to changes in political systems.
  • Ideologies may benefit or harm the society.
  • Governments may sacrifice the people’s liberty for the collective good.
  • Authoritarian regimes may face resistance if it loses its efficacy.
  • Conflict can result in and from change.
  • Conflict between two or more competing entities may lead to confrontation.

Learning Outcomes 
By the end of the course, the students should be able to 

  • Have a deep sense of identity and a belief that they can make a difference in the destiny of their nation.
  • Learn from the past through varied socio-cultural perspectives over time and space, and understand its relevance to the present through lessons learned.
  • Empathise with peoples, cultures and issues and appreciate that different societies hold different beliefs, values and attitudes at different points of time.
  • Understand that leaders have a responsibility to the people they represent.
  • Understand how and why historical interpretations are produced.



        Introduction to History
        Pre-modern Singapore and the Asian Maritime Trade (pre-14th to 16th Century)
        Establishing Singapore as a British Colony
        Development of Singapore (Early 20th Century to pre-World War II)  


        The Japanese Occupation & its Impact on Singapore
        Conceiving the Nation (1945-1955): Malaya and Singapore
        The Contest Of Ideas (1955-1963)
        The Realization of a Nation (1963-1965)


        Authoritarian Regime in Europe:  Communism in Russia under Stalin
        Authoritarian Regime in Europe: Nazism in Germany under Hitler
        Authoritarian Regime in Asia: Communism in China under Mao


        Causes of the Second World War
        Origins and Causes of the Cold War
        Case Studies of the Cold War


area studies (Southeast asia)


Singapore is arguably one of the most globalised countries in the world. It is important for Singaporeans, and especially her future leaders, to be knowledgeable of other countries and to be able to appreciate their cultures, historical development and issues affecting them. This includes understanding her immediate milieu - the Southeast Asian context.

Area Studies (Southeast Asia) aims to look at the geography, politics and history of the region against the backdrop of important global events. The curriculum is designed for our students to gain a deeper understanding of the region from multiple lenses, including an appreciation of the local context. 

The curriculum is also designed to cultivate critical thinking skills to process information and analyse issues from various perspectives.

Key Understandings
Students will understand that

  • The rich and diverse physical environment influences the way people live in Southeast Asia, which in turn, produces a culture that is unique to the region
  • Culture is not static – while there are continuities, it also undergoes continuous transitions
  • The physical, cultural, economic and intellectual elements interact and influence the ideology and belief systems espoused by key individuals or interest groups in Southeast Asia
  • Southeast Asiaas a crossroads result in contact with foreign elements which brings about positive or negative responses
  • The past strongly influences the development of the region and shapes the present and future of Southeast Asia
Learning Outcomes
 By the end of the course, the students should be able to

  • Explain the validity of classifying Southeast Asia as a region
  • Appreciate the rich diversity of culture, customs and traditions in Southeast Asia, as well as identify the region's core unifying elements
  • Explain how history and geography have shaped societies, economies and political institutions of countries in Southeast Asia
  • Discuss major contemporary issues in Southeast Asia, including issues of nation-building and sustainable development
  • Integrate a diverse range of appropriate primary and secondary materials, such as historical texts, literary texts, visual arts and audio recordings to appreciate local perspectives
  • Demonstrate cultural awareness and empathy when dealing with people of different cultures
Area Studies (Southeast Asia) is available as one of the Humanities subjects from year 3 onwards

Defining a region - complexities and commonalities
Understanding the connection between landscape, culture and society in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia as cultural and economic crossroads
Indianisation and Islamisation of early Southeast Asia
Traditional political systems in Southeast Asia
The role of religion in Southeast Asian society
Syncretism as a key characteristic of Southeast Asian society

Major Epochs in Southeast Asian Development
Colonisation of Southeast Asia
Independence and Nation-building in Southeast Asia
Regional Organisations - Rationale and Models
Regional cooperation: The role and relevance of ASEAN